igcse history notes

Contact us through the contact form to share your notes! Georges Clemenceau (prime minister of France) wanted to cripple/ get revenge on Germany. Also see the following study notes to help you ace your ICSE History Board Exam 2019: IGCSE History Past Papers. This website covers the IGCSE subjects I take which are business studies, computer science, 3 sciences, English and ESL. Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939? - Decided to support fascist, Franco with Mussolini, - After 30 months fascists emerged with victory. You have created 2 folders. What happened at both meetings in the Munich Agreement? Why was the Treaty of Versailles inconsistent? A membership is required. The Paris Peace Treaties 2. Menu. Why did the USA and the UN get involved in Korea? by KimGrisdale, Chapter 7: Why did the events in the gulf matter 1970- 2000? Add to folder[?] How did Hitler plant to acquire lebensraum? History (0470) The Cambridge IGCSE History syllabus looks at some of the major international issues of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as well as covering the history of particular regions in more depth. Home; About; Nazi-Soviet Pact. Please Report them to us using the contact form. What were the territorial disputes about? top-rated free essay IGCSE history revision guide. How effectively did the USA contain the spread of communism. - Events in Czechoslovakia showed that Hitler's true intentions were to dominate Europe by force, - Events in Poland were regarded as continuation of this process. Home AIC GCSE/IGCSE Study Hacks Online Tutors GCSE History. - In October 1929 the Wall Street Crash was the start of a worldwide economic recession, - Production and trade over the next three years plummeted and these was a high rise in unemployment, - Every capitalist country in the world was affected, - Depression reduced the amount if League members to impose economic sanctions, - World markets were shrinking and countries wanted to maintain existing trade, - Depression bought extremist power in Germany (Hitler) who wanted to destroy the Versailles settlement, - Before Wall Street Crash the Nazis were polling less than 3%, - As the recession deepened the Nazis picked up support, - Japanese army knew that Japan's survival depended on overseas trade, - In 1931 it decided to take law into its own hands, - Depression put pressure on governments to cut expenditure to balance the books, - League members lacked the military needed to deal with aggressors, - Depression put pressure on countries to find new sources of raw materials, - This could be done through colonisation of new territories. Cambridge IGCSE History will stimulate any learner already interested in the past, providing a basis for further study, and also encouraging a lifelong interest in the subject. This area will help students studying GCSE History on the Edexcel Exam board specifically, although most of the content is highly likely to be relevant for all other exam boards too. All the content … Made a 14 point plan that was designed to stop war, - Reduction of all armaments in all countries, - Self- determinations (allowing national groups to rule themselves). Covers following topics: 1. The emphasis is on both historical knowledge and on the skills required for historical … Get most recent Cambridge IGCSE History Past Papers, Marking Schemes Examiner Reports and Grade Thresholds. Smart Notes Online provides help to the students by classifying resources, such as Books, Revision Guides, Notes, Past Papers, Mark schemes and Examiner reports. - Hitler did not think that Britain and France would declare war on Germany in September 1939, - Due to Nazi-Soviet pact that would mean that Britain and France could not give effective help, - It was also unexpected because of the way that Britain and France reacted to other moves that Hitler made, - Patience of Britain and France had run out and in March 1939 there was acceptance that a war would start soon, audio not yet available for this language, - The waterway was important because it was used for oil exports and it was Iraq's only outlet to the sea, - Britain and France declared war on Germany following invasion of Poland on 1st September, {"cdnAssetsUrl":"","site_dot_caption":"Cram.com","premium_user":false,"premium_set":false,"payreferer":"clone_set","payreferer_set_title":"IGCSE History chapter notes","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/igcse-history-chapter-notes-6781399","isGuest":true,"ga_id":"UA-272909-1","facebook":{"clientId":"363499237066029","version":"v2.9","language":"en_US"}}. - Finland and Sweden claimed that they both wanted the Aaland Islands, - Most islanders wanted to be ruled by Sweden, - League investigated and awarded the island to Finland, - Valuable industrial area on the boarder between Germany and Poland, - Granted to Poland but Germans protested and plebiscite was held, - Overall results favoured Germany but in some rural parts the clear majority wanted Poland, - After riots and protests the League gave Easter Upper Silesia to Poland and Western Upper Silesia to Germany, - Turkey claimed the Kurdish populated province of Mosul which was part of the British- mandated territory of Iraq, - League investigated and made award in favour of Iraq, - Greece was ordered to pay 45 000 Pounds compensation to Bulgaria after its invasion of Bulgarian territory, - This was judged as an over the top response to a shooting on the border incident that had killed a Greek sentry, - Greece accepted the ruling but felt it was unfair because Italy ha been treated more generously in similar circumstances, - Vilna was a largely Polish populated capital of the new state Lithuania, - Polish army seized the city in 1920 and Lithuania made an appeal to the League, - League asked the Polish troops to leave while a plebiscite was made but they refused, - Matter was passed to conference of ambassadors who awarded Vilna to Poland, - Germany could not pay its reparations in 1922, - France, supported by Belgium ordered their troops to occupy Ruhr in January 1923, - This action showed that that League was a victors club which only pursued the victor's interests, - Italian general and staff had been killed patrolling part of a boarder, - Mussolini demanded 50 million lira as well as execution of assassins, - Greece was unable to locate them so Mussolini resorted to invading Corfu in 1923, - Greece appealed to League and they condemned the action until Mussolini insisted it should be passed to the conference of ambassadors, - Because of Italy's bullying tactics Greece had to pay excessive amounts in reparations, - France was most concerned about its security and looked to making mutual assistance pacts with countries like Czechoslovakia and Poland, - Pacts designed to give France added protection, - As a result of the weaknesses exposed by the Corfu incident the British and French devised the Geneva Protocol, - Drafted in 1924 by French and British Prime ministers, - Stated that League members were required to agree to the settling of disputes by the Permanent Court of International Justice, - Decision backed by economic and Military power of all members, - If protocol was adopted it would have strengthened League, - Change in British government stopped this scheme because they refused to approve it, - First time since 1918 Germany was treated the same as all other European powers, - Treaty provided guarantees for the frontiers of north- eastern Europe and confirmed demilitarised status if Rhineland, - However they said nothing about frontiers of eastern Europe, - France and America signed a pact renouncing war, - Pact amounted to no more than an international statement of good intentions. Resources For Teachers, Students & Parents. 7. This site has been created in an effort to help IGCSE History students. Ancient Egypt; Ancient Greece; Anglo Saxons; Ancient Aztec; Romans; Vikings; Medieval. 3. History GCSE Revision Notes. How far did weakness in the League's organisations make failure inevitable? - East Prussia was separated from the rest of Germany by the Polish corridor, - Danzig (mostly German populated) was put under the control of the League of Nations, - 3.5 million Germans were put under Czech rule in Sudetenland. Lloyd George (Prime minister of Britain) wanted to be harsh on Germany until 1919 when he decided he wanted Justice and not to be overly harsh. Do you want to help students all around the world? Didn't want Rhineland to go because that is where a lot of German industry was. How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult? My goal is to create simple notes for all students. What was the nature of Saddam Hussein's rule in Iraq? He wanted to make peace by ending the wa... President Wilson viewed the goal of World War I to be the end “absolutism and militarism,” horrible practices that denied people liberty. OxNotes' history revision notes are ideal if you're studying GCSE History on the Edexcel Exam board specifically. History homepage; Unit 1; Unit 2; Unit 3; Unit 4; Unit 5; Unit 6; Unit 7; Revision Booklets; 1. How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism? Note: We have done our best to improve the clarity, however, readers are requested to leave a comment in case they find the notes difficult to read. Wilson's 14 points: Germany though that the treaty was signed applying to Wilson's 14 points. To make Iraq the leader of the Arab world, - Was established in 1945 to promote the political, economic and cultural interests of the Arab countries, - Founder members were Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Syria, Why did Saddam choose 1980 to invade Iran, - The overthrow of the Shah led to an ending of an alliance between USA and Iran, - This meant that Iranian army was deprived of American supplied parts for Iran's armoured vehicles, - Iran was also weak due to a purge of senior military leaders, - Iran was a Shiite Muslim state and Iraq was mainly controlled by Sunni Muslims, - Ayatollah encouraged anti- Baath protests because he was bitter over expulsion from Iraq in 1977, - Anti- Baath riots did take place and Saddam blamed Ayatollah, - US feared destabilisation in the region for oil supplies and didn't want Islamic revolutions to spread, - The War of the Tankers refers to 1984 when Iran and Iraq target each others' oil tankers and merchant ships in an attempt to damage each others' trade, - The causes were territorial disputes, desire for domination in Gulf, opportunity of Islamic revolution in Iran and Ayatollah's opposition to Saddam, - Consequences were no leadership change, no boarder change, no diplomatic change, huge death toll of 1 million Iran and 250- 500 thousand Iraq, huge economic damage and Iraq went from very rich to almost bankrupt, - In 1990 Saddam ordered the invasion of Kuwait, - Within 24 hours Iraq's 100,000 strong army had crushed Kuwait's 16,000 man army, - The ruler of Kuwait escaped with most of his family to Saudi Arabia, - Iraq was condemned in Arab League and United Nations imposed military sanctions, - Saudi Arabia appealed to US military fearing that it would be the next victim of Iraqi aggression, - Saddam's unprovoked aggression had united almost all international community against him, - End of WW1 Kuwait was officially part of Turkish empire's province of Basra, - British accepted responsibility for Kuwait's defence and foreign affairs in 1899 and 1922 and helped establish boundaries with Iran and Iraq and Saudi Arabia, - Association between Kuwait and Basra led number of Iraqi rulers to insist that Kuwait was part of Iraq, - He attempted to represent the Iran- Iraq war as an Iraqi victory but realised that Iraqi people would soon see through the propaganda, - in reality their country had endured a costly and bloody conflict that had essentially ended where it started, - Iraq also displayed many characteristics of a defeated power like inflation etc, since July 1988 there had been 4 attempts on Saddam's life and needed to secure his role, - Kuwait seemed to be the answer because he could pose as a liberator of a territory, - In Iran- Iraq war Saddam was given loans that amounted to $40 billion from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, - He asked both countries to write off loans and asked for another loan of $30 million, - Saddam also asked both countries to bring their oil production in line with the quotas fixed by OEPC and both countries refused, - Saddam also accused Kuwait of stealing $2.4 billion of oil from Iraq, - He accused both states of waging economic war against his country and threatened dire consiquences, - If invasion of Kuwait was successful Iraq would gain 120 miles of Gulf coastline with natural harbour, - Iraq would be in good position to dominate Saudi Arabia, - Would gain massive amounts of oil wealth, - He hoped to become most powerful Arab leader in the Middle East, - Prior to 1990 Saddam's main objective was to keep US neutral if it made any move against Kuwait, - US ambassador Glaspie gave Saddam impression that the matter was not on of key concern to US, - US mistook Saddam's real threats for empty ones, - Saddam drew conclusion that the invasion would be unapposed, Operation Desert Shield (7 August 1990- 17 January 1991), - After initial occupation of Kuwait there was no further fighting for 5 months, - During this period there was a build up of American, French and British troops in Saudi Arabia, - United Nations demanded Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait and then imposed economic sanctions, - UN finally set a deadline for Iraqi withdrawal before economic action takes place, Operation Desert Storm (17 January- 28 February 1991), - Planes and helicopters attacked Iraqi military targets in Kuwait and Iraq, - Iraq retaliated by launching SCUD missiles on Israel (trying to provoke an Israeli attack on Iraq), - Forces invaded Iraq and Kuwait forcing Saddam to order an Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, - 10,000 Iraqi troops were killed and US destroyed 186 Iraqi tanks and 127 armoured vehicles, - On 28 February President Bush announced a ceasefire and declared Kuwait had been freed from Iraq.

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